Internet of things is about connecting a network of smart devices or sensors together to easing of operations and sharing of data amongst themselves. Evolution in the convergence of wireless technologies, internet and micro-electromechanical systems has made IoT and machine to machine (M2M)technologies possible. There are various smart devices, such as sensors, smartphones, and wearables, which collect necessary data from the devices which are further utilized to enhance customer’s experience. The increasing need for data analysis and integration of analytics is expected to propel the utilization of the Internet of Things market globally. The advancements in connectivity options through 5G technology is expected further to leapfrog the adoption and there by growth of the IOT marketplace.
The global market for Internet of things (IoT) end-user solutions is expected to grow to 212 billion U.S. dollars in size by the end of 2019. The technology reached 100 billion dollars in market revenue for the first time in 2017, and forecasts suggest that this figure will grow to around 1.6 trillion by 2025 (source Statista). With the development of wireless networking technologies, the emergence of advanced data analytics, a reduction in the cost of connected devices, an increase in cloud platform adoption, the market is expected to grow at a positive rate.
Some of the factors leading to this growth are –
Gartner has analyzed the maturity curve of the adoption of IOT in the Digital Transformation journey and the Hype Cycle for the Internet of Things has shifted from "Hype" to "Trough of Disillusionment" with the clear observation that
With so many IoT connectivity options on the market, choosing the right one for your project can be complicated. Connectivity is a critical piece for successful implementation of any IOT Project. All the stakeholders whether it is the Device manufacturers, Bandwidth providers, System integrator, Application Developers, Platform providers etc. need to find the most suitable connectivity option for their products and projects. There are in excess of 30 connectivity options for IOT deployment in the market today,with an ongoing effort by different stakeholders to evolve and deploy new ones,he search for the right option could be challenging.
This challenge gets even more difficult considering the amount ofdata is growing and the current solutions are constrained to handle the risingdata volume. In addition some of the stakeholders like Application Developersand Device Manufacturers must provide interoperability at the element level inthe IOT ecosystem, the ideal system being all devices work without any coordinationwith any other vendors. However, some of the Device OEM’s and Technologycompanies are still announcing their own standards which may be interoperable,but interconnectivity remains a serious barrier.
IOT Stakeholders (mainly the Application developers and the DeviceOEM’s) must also strike a balance between three key parameters critical for theIOT ecosystem – Bandwidth, Range and Power Consumption. End-user-companies andApplication developers are wanting solutions that would be a perfect combinationof high bandwidth for transmitting large amount of data over huge distanceswhile consuming less batter power and of course, at an economic value. Buttoday, there is a must make trade-off between the three parameters whilechoosing the right solution.
There is no one-size-fits-all protocol capableof supporting all technological and analytical tasks. But some solutions arebetter suited for specific use cases. Here is a comparison of the most commonconnectivity options available today.
1. WiFi –
2. Bluetooth and Bluetooth Low Energy –
3. Mesh Technologies –
4. LPWAN – (Low Powered wide area network)
Licensed NB-IoT offers low bandwidth data connections at low cost and is currently Europe-focused, while LTE-M is optimized for higher bandwidth and mobile connections. LTE-M has higher throughput with lower latency and battery use is optimized accordingly. The licensed band technologies work through the cellular service providers on 3G/4g With speeds of LTE-M 300kbps/380kbps, NB-IOT 26kbps/66kbps, EC-GSM474kbps/474kbps (EDGE) & 2mbps/2mbps (EGPRS2B) all with a high latency 50ms to 2s. Most of these technologies are evolving into 5G as well.
Unlicensed Sigfox is a proprietary network owned by the company and is a narrowband(or ultra-narrowband) technology. It uses a standard radio transmission method called binary phase-shift keying (BPSK), and it takes very narrow chunksof spectrum and changes the phase of the carrier radio wave to encode the data.Sigfox uses 200 kHz of the publicly available and unlicensed bands to exchange radio messages over the air (868 to 869 MHz and 902 to 928 MHz depending on regions) with a speed of 100 bps. LoRa (short for long range) is a spread spectrum modulation technique derived from chirp spread spectrum (CSS) technology and is an open network proposed by a consortium. LoRa transmits over license-free megahertz radio frequency bands: 169 MHz,433 MHz (Asia), 868 MHz (Europe) and 915 MHz (North America). LoRaenables very-long-range wireless data transmission. LoRa communications can be made at ranges of ten miles, using low power at a speed ranging from 27 mbps to 50 kbps, battery life upto 10 years.
5. 5G –
Dueto the speed, massive capacity and super low latency of the 5G Ultra Wide band network, the potential for technological growth is vast. 5G is important to the Internet of Things because of the need for a faster network with higher capacity that can serve connectivity needs. The 5Gexpands the frequencies on which digital cellular technologies will transfer data. This wider spectrum available for use increases the overall bandwidth of cellular networks, allowing for additional devices to connect.
Another area where 5G Ultra Wideband could impact the Internet of Things is enhancing virtual and augmented reality (AR/VR). 5G Ultra Wide band’s ultra-low latency can improve the AR/VR experience, and opens possibilities for such technology in business, education and elsewhere. 5G has the potential to drive advancements in smart machinery as well as smart manufacturing. Thinking even bigger, 5G could enable IoT to run virtually instantaneous traffic analyses,improve security and public safety enable remote surgery.
With the flexibility of the different 5G bands with different speeds and penetration levels, ad with the 5G ecosystem evolving, 5G offers much promise to the IOT growth in the coming years.
5G will play a significant role in leapfrogging IOT based solutions worldwide.
OAuth is an open-standard authorization protocol or framework that provides applications the ability for “secure designated access.” For example, you can tell Facebook that it's OK for ESPN.com to access your profile or post updates to your timeline without having to give ESPN your Facebook password
Simple linear regression is a regression model that estimates the relationship between one independent variable and one dependent variable using a straight line. Both variables should be quantitative. ... Linear regression most often uses mean-square error (MSE) to calculate the error of the model.